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Human race evolving new capabilities due to rapid population growth?

Discover Magazine tells us that “Fast population growth has littered our genomes with five times as many rare gene variants as would be expected”:

All of these mutations — roughly 100 billion for each generation in the entire population — potentially accelerate the pace of evolution by giving it more raw materials with which to work. A small percentage may be beneficial; abilities such as digesting milk in adulthood and living at high altitude are recent acquisitions of the human genome. Given how many mutations are now circulating among living humans, we may be evolving new capabilities already.

Like the ability to spell P-O-P-P-Y-C-O-C-K?

But, come to think of it, my relatives are evolving already. They all seem older, greyer, … ;)

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37 Responses to Human race evolving new capabilities due to rapid population growth?

  1. ‘But, come to think of it, my relatives are evolving already. They all seem older, greyer…’

    Only your relatives, eh, News? Lucky you!

  2. A race of people who can digest milk in adulthood !!!!
    How will evolution select for that ???? Again would someone please spin me a “just so” narrative.

  3. I think I have a solution to the problem @ 2

    Humans would have needed to evolve in an environment where the only adult drink was milk !!!

  4. If one is lactose intolerant then one can take digestive enzymes, especially those containing lactase.

    After a long swim or other type of workout I love my protein shakes made with milk. But I always take my enzymes up to 1/2 hour before I enjoy.

    The point being is we no longer require “evolution” to help us because we have helped ourselves.

  5. @Johnnyfarmer #2: How will evolution select for that ????

    How does “technological evolution select for” (create) all the new technologies that appeared last ten or twenty years? That’s exactly how “biological evolution selects for” (creates) its innovations. The only difference is that instead of networks of neurons which come up with inventions, it is the cellular biochemical networks that do the required computations in the case of biological evolution.

    Such networks with adaptable links (mathematically modeled by neural networks) are distributed, self-programming computers running the same kind of general optimization algorithms.

  6. as to:

    A small percentage may be beneficial; abilities such as digesting milk in adulthood and living at high altitude are recent acquisitions of the human genome.

    Though beneficial in their particular environments, these mutations are both actually found to be deleterious at the molecular level:

    Professional evolutionary biologists are hard-pressed to cite even one clear-cut example of evolution through a beneficial mutation to the DNA of humans which would violate the principle of genetic entropy. Although a materialist may try to claim the lactase persistence mutation as a lonely example of a ‘truly’ beneficial mutation in humans, lactase persistence is actually a loss of a instruction in the genome to turn the lactase enzyme off, so the mutation clearly does not violate Genetic Entropy. Moreover it clearly appears to be a ‘designed mutation’ that has ‘serendipitously’ originated independently three different times:

    Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe
    Excerpt: We conducted a genotype-phenotype association study in 470 Tanzanians, Kenyans and Sudanese and identified three SNPs (G/C-14010, T/G-13915 and C/G-13907) that are associated with lactase persistence and that have derived alleles that significantly enhance transcription from the LCT promoter in vitro. These SNPs originated on different haplotype backgrounds from the European C/T-13910 SNP and from each other.
    http://www.nature.com/ng/journ.....g1946.html

    As well, recently new rare ‘beneficial’ mutations were found in Tibetans that have allowed them to survive in extremely high altitudes, with less oxygen. Yet once again the new ‘beneficial mutations’ are actually found to be ‘slightly detrimnetal’ because they in fact result in a limit on the red cell blood count for Tibetans:

    Tibetans Developed Genes to Help Them Adapt to Life at High Elevations – May 2010
    Excerpt: “What’s unique about Tibetans is they don’t develop high red blood cells counts,”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....143453.htm

    Yet high red blood cell counts are found to be good,,

    Extremely fit individuals may have higher values—significantly more red cells in their bodies and significantly more oxygen-carrying capacity—but still maintain normal hematocrit values.
    http://wiki.medpedia.com/Red_B.....w_It_Works

    ,,,Thus they were actually incorrect to imply/assume that all high red blood cell counts found in humans are detrimental,,, Thus this is clearly another example of a loss of overall functional information, and fitness, from the human genome. This following article goes into more detail and points out many other inconsistencies with the Tibetan mutations that evaporate any claim for evidence of a ‘truly’ beneficial mutation:

    Tibetans Evolved Altitude Tolerance in 3,000 Years? – July 2010
    http://www.creationsafaris.com.....#20100703a

    As well neo-Darwinism presupposes that the ‘beneficial mutations’ which conferred the advantage for Tibetans to live at high altitudes was completely random, yet when looked at from the point of population genetics, the evidence gives every indication that the ‘beneficial mutations’ were not random at all but, as with lactase persistence, were in fact ‘directed/programmed’ mutations that were targeted:

    Another Darwinian “Prediction” Bites the Dust – PaV – August 2010
    Excerpt: this means the probability of all three sites changing “at once” (6.25 X 10^-9)^2 = approx. 4 X 10^-17 specific bp change/ yr. IOW (In Other Words), for that size population, and this is a very reasonable guess for size, it would take almost twice the life of the universe for them to take place “at once”. Thus, the invocation of “randomness” in this whole process is pure nonsense. We’re dealing with some kind of programmed response if, in fact, “polygenic selection” is taking place. And, that, of course, means design.
    http://www.uncommondescent.com.....more-14516

    Footnotes:

    the evidence for the detrimental nature of mutations in humans is overwhelming for scientists have already cited over 100,000 mutational disorders.

    Inside the Human Genome: A Case for Non-Intelligent Design – Pg. 57 By John C. Avise
    Excerpt: “Another compilation of gene lesions responsible for inherited diseases is the web-based Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). Recent versions of HGMD describe more than 75,000 different disease causing mutations identified to date in Homo-sapiens.”

    I went to the mutation database website cited by John Avise and found:

    HGMD®: Now celebrating our 100,000 mutation milestone!
    http://www.hgmd.org/

    I really question their use of the word ‘celebrating’. (Of note, apparently someone with a sense of decency has now removed the word ‘celebrating’)

    Dr. John Sanford “Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome” 1/2 – video
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJ-4umGkgos

    Genetic Entropy in Human Genome is found to be ‘recent’:
    Human Genetic Variation Recent, Varies Among Populations – (Nov. 28, 2012)
    Excerpt: Nearly three-quarters of mutations in genes that code for proteins — the workhorses of the cell — occurred within the past 5,000 to 10,000 years,,,
    “One of the most interesting points is that Europeans have more new deleterious (potentially disease-causing) mutations than Africans,”,,,
    “Having so many of these new variants can be partially explained by the population explosion in the European population. However, variation that occur in genes that are involved in Mendelian traits and in those that affect genes essential to the proper functioning of the cell tend to be much older.” (A Mendelian trait is controlled by a single gene. Mutations in that gene can have devastating effects.) The amount variation or mutation identified in protein-coding genes (the exome) in this study is very different from what would have been seen 5,000 years ago,,,
    The report shows that “recent” events have a potent effect on the human genome. Eighty-six percent of the genetic variation or mutations that are expected to be harmful arose in European-Americans in the last five thousand years, said the researchers.
    The researchers used established bioinformatics techniques to calculate the age of more than a million changes in single base pairs (the A-T, C-G of the genetic code) that are part of the exome or protein-coding portion of the genomes (human genetic blueprint) of 6,515 people of both European-American and African-American decent.,,,
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....132259.htm

  7. BA77 How do they know the “high altitude” trait was the result of a more recent mutation …. instead of being an older naturally occurring variation in the gene pool ???

    (of course the linked article in the OP assumes unguided evolution)

  8. @ 5 nightlight said “it is the cellular biochemical networks that do the required computations in the case of biological evolution.”

    Biochemical networks do calculations ??????

    (I’m Hoping Amazon still has some copies of “Neural Networks for Dummies”)

  9. Johnnyfarmer, all I can say for certain is that the mutation is detrimental in the overall sense, as to the details of when and how the mutation occurred you would have to ask someone more versed in genetics than I, or perhaps you could try to search the matter out a bit for yourself to see if you can learn the answer.

  10. @Johnnyfarmer #8: Biochemical networks do calculations ??????

    Of course they do e.g. see a recent monograph Information Processing by Biochemical Systems, or recent research papers on the subject.

    Networks with adaptable links which adjust link strengths based on some punishments & rewards are modeled by “neural networks” mathematical abstraction. Their general algorithmic pattern for maximizing the total rewards-punishments is internal modeling of their environment (or input to the network) is via internal modeling of the environment, which includes modeling of other adaptable networks they interact with, along with their internal models,… then playing the model forward in model space-time, like a chess player playing out potential move sequences in his mind before selecting the move he will play over the board.

    The “neural networks” are an abstraction of such systems, showing how they compute. The conclusions from the abstract models are general since they don’t rely on any specific implementation. Hence they apply to any concrete instance, no matter what the nodes and links are made of, whether it is neurons and axons-dendrite network (such as human brain) or biochemical networks with its molecules and chemical reaction pathways.

    Even the networks in the abstract/non-matter-energy realms, such as languages (natural and synthetic such as mathematical formalism), sciences, religions, cultures,… execute similar optimization algorithms using our brains and recording technologies as their substratum.

  11. OP

    FROM THE JULY/AUGUST 2013 ISSUE Discover Magazine
    “Most Mutations in the Human Genome are Recent and Probably Harmful”

    “Fast population growth has littered our genomes with five times as many rare gene variants as would be expected.”

    It would be expected that a rapid population increase would produce new variants in proportion to the increase… but article states the increase in variants is five time what would be expected.

    Could be do to compounding effects of genetic entropy or build up of genetic load ???

    Also me @ 1 and 2 ….OOPS I miss read and assumed the new traits had been fixed in the population and not just randomly appearing as the article stated.

  12. Johnnyfarmer,

    I’m not sure if you’re a troll. But selection for lactase persistance is pretty well documented. When even know what mutations where selected for and where (it has happened multiple times in differenct ways).

    If you are a genuine creationist you might want to read up a little…

  13. wd400 …. not a troll and not a PhD either…. Have a BS but don’t BS …. maybe like to joke a little

    Am a creationist and will read up

    Thanks !!!!!!!

  14. @ 2 & 3 I questioned how an ability to digest lactase could be selected for. In humans the inability for adults to digest lactase is only an inconvenience and to acquire (by mutation)the ability to digest milk as an adult would be desirable only if you like drinking milk. But I do not believe there could be a situation where natural selection would favor adults who maintain the ability to digest milk !!!

    RM may produce lactase tolerance but NS will not select for it.

    … but you are welcome to try to spin a “just so” narrative if you like.

    BTW I do not believe in macro evolution …. but I do believe evolution on occasion gets lucky….

  15. But I do not believe there could be a situation where natural selection would favor adults who maintain the ability to digest milk !!!

    Really!

    Dawkins related a story about a bishop who wrote a pamphlet critical of evolution and one of his arguments was “As for camouflage, this is not always easily explicable on neo-Darwinian premises. If polar bears are dominant in the Arctic, then there would seem to have been no need for them to evolve a white-coloured form of camouflage.”

    Have you not heard about the development of pastoralism and the change from hunter-gatherer lifestyle to farmer? Dairy products?

  16. nightlight thanks for your time and I did check out the links. I have read Franklin Harold’s “The Cell” and I understand how a very delicate biochemical balance is maintained (homeostasis) and that this is accomplished through chemical driven logic circuitry. And I recall David Berlinski saying the cells functions could be described by algorithms. So I think I understand what you were saying…

    except I don’t understand @ 5 how any computations could determine if selection could be successful in a given environment ??? if that is what you were hinting at !!!

  17. @ 15 Alan Alan Alan lets not beat around the bush …. Spin me one of those “just so” tales to select for adult lactase tolerance and in return I will spin one guaranteed to stretch the neck of a giraffe every time !!!

  18. wd400 @ 12

    Lactase persistence evolved more than once and and has evolved several ways …. I am OK with this

    But lactase persistence has not been selected for !!! even if it involves the mutating of more than one gene !!!

    If so … How ???

  19. @Johnnyfarmer #16

    except I don’t understand @ 5 how any computations could determine if selection could be successful in a given environment ??? if that is what you were hinting at !!!

    Yes, that’s exactly what I was saying. This type of anticipatory optimization becomes quite obvious when you look at a human brain as a network optimizing its net punishments-rewards within social organism (larger society) or ecosystem. The cellular biochemical networks are in analogous position vs the entire organism and its environment. Your brain internally models social organism and ecosystem and computes your “best” actions (those maximizing your net rewards-punishments) e.g. if you figure out that price of some goods you need will rise, you may stock up; or if you figure heavy winds and storms are coming, you may board up your windows ahead of time.

    In the same manner, the cellular biochemical networks receive inputs from the organism and its environment and build internal model of the whole system which they play forward in model time to decide on their “best” action (biochemical changes in the cell). E.g. if a cellular biochemical network computes that based on its current inputs odds of a cold weather ahead are high, it may stimulate or upregulate growth of hair or accumulation of fat, or it may produce signaling molecules which will cause such actions in some other cells, including reproductive cells which in turn may yield offspring via mutation deliberately induced to improve its well being.

    Of course, like any anticipatory process it is a shot into the uncertain future which may hit or miss since ultimately any such model is a coarse grained, scaled down imitation of the full system being modeled (which includes other anticipatory systems i.e. it is intrinsically unpredictable). As with individual humans modeling and influencing social organism and its ecosystem, most changes are tiny, although occasionally a visionary or prophet appears inducing massive, fundamental changes (e.g. Archimedes, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Tesla, Ford, Alexander, Napoleon, FDR, Stalin, Mao, Hitler,… etc).

    The same goes for changes computed by cellular biochemical networks, which are mostly minor and at epigenetic level, although under sufficient stress a ‘visionary’ cell may arise which will compute and set in motion a dramatically novel capability leading to new species or even body plans that will unfold and get amplified within just a few generations.

    Note that James Shapiro is currently the main proponent of this approach for explaining biological complexity and evolution, although he uses general engineering concepts and terminology rather than computational or neural network models.

  20. Johnny.

    There is lots of evidence for selection. Here’s once such – there are very few variable bases either side of the one that causes lactase persistence in Northern Europe. This is a pattern we expect to see with new genes rapidally spreading as the result of selection (since recombination hasn’t had enough time to break down “swap out” parts of the new gene with neighbouring regions).

    It’s quite a subtle idea, and requires you to understand some key concepts in evolution and genetics, but I’m sure you can get it. Read the paper and see the evidence they present.

  21. @ 15 Alan Alan Alan lets not beat around the bush …. Spin me one of those “just so” tales to select for adult lactase tolerance and in return I will spin one guaranteed to stretch the neck of a giraffe every time !!!

    Johnnyfarmer, why not look at the evidence presented in the paper wd400 linked to?

    Here’s the abstract;

    Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (?13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the ?13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia’s geographic space. Using data on ?13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the ?13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.

    The authors are suggesting a correlation between lactase persistence in humans and the development of dairy farming. The patterns of where dairy farming began and where the LP gene is found.

    Lactase persistence (LP) is an autosomal dominant trait enabling the continued production of the enzyme lactase throughout adult life. Lactase non-persistence is the ancestral condition for humans, and indeed for all mammals [1]. Production of lactase in the gut is essential for the digestion of the milk sugar lactose. LP is common in northern and western Europeans as well as in many African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian pastoralist groups, but is rare or absent elsewhere in the world

  22. It would be very interesting to see (or even bet, say $10 :-)) that the mutations required for lactase-persistance into adulthood are within Behe’s edge of evolution.

    The exact mutations required would have to be known and studied but I’d willing to bet that Behe’s edge of evolution is not violated.

  23. LoL! Just because the production of lactase continues in some humans that does NOT mean unguided evolution, ie natural selection, didit.

  24. steveO, you might find this of interest:

    Got milk? Research finds evidence of dairy farming 7,000 years ago in Sahara
    Excerpt: In premature babies, the gene coding for lactase is sometimes not yet active. And in much of the world’s population, the gene is downregulated after weaning, eventually producing some degree of lactose intolerance. Those whose genes are not downregulated are said to have “lactase persistence.” However, even lactose-intolerant people still have genes coding for lactase enzyme; they are just switched off.
    In an adult with lactase persistence, one or both alleles of the lactase gene remain switched on.
    http://www.answersingenesis.or.....e-07072012

    Loss of an instruction (information) to downregulate the gene and only one or two alleles involved? Moreover there is very good reason to believe that ‘non-random’ epigenetic factors were involved! Not something for Darwinists to crow about. But then again if they must rely on this type of pathetic evidence to try to make their case for ‘Darwinian’ evolution then they really have nothing at all to point to as evidence.

    Of related notes:

    Physiology moves back onto centre stage: a new synthesis with evolutionary biology – Denis Nobel – July 2013 – video
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzD1daWq4ng

    Here is the paper that accompanies the preceding video:

    Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology – Denis Noble – 17 MAY 2013
    Excerpt: The ‘Modern Synthesis’ (Neo-Darwinism) is a mid-20th century gene-centric view of evolution, based on random mutations accumulating to produce gradual change through natural selection.,,, We now know that genetic change is far from random and often not gradual.,,,
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.....4/abstract

    “The genome is an ‘organ of the cell’, not its dictator”
    - Denis Nobel – President of the International Union of Physiological Sciences

    Of related note:

    Daily thought: blue eyes and other gene mutations, April 25, 2013
    Excerpt: “Research on blue-eyes has led many scientist to further affirm that humans are truly mere variations of the same origin. About 8% of the world’s total population has blue eyes so blue eyes are fairly rare. In fact, blue eyes are actually a gene mutation that scientist have researched and found to have happened when the OCA2 gene “turned off the ability to produce brown eyes.”
    http://www.examiner.com/articl.....-mutations

  25. nightlight can the cell know if a mutation will cause a new binding site and if so then can the cell calculate which other proteins the new protein would interact with ???

    As for evolution influencing body plans …. we know little about this … but seems like is due to a loss or corruption of the information which directs fetal development.

  26. BA77 @24

    Got Milk ?

    LOLOL

    BTW first dairy farming was goat herding.

    also: My grandfather had a dairy farm and when my cousin was born she could not digest cow milk ….so Grandpap bought a milking goat and problem was solved.

  27. Alan,

    Haemophilia is common within the royal lines of Europe. Does that mean it was ‘selected for’ within that population? Haemophilia C is more common in Jews of Ashkenazi (east European) descent than in other population groups. Does that mean it is being ‘selected for’ within that Jewish population?

    Stephen

  28. @Johnnyfarmer #25:

    …can the cell know if a mutation will cause a new binding site and if so then can the cell calculate which other proteins the new protein would interact with ???

    Consider what the biochemical networks know how to do, such as molecular scale engineering of the new working cell from simple atoms and molecules, then an organism from trillions of cells. And after it puts it all together out of trillions trillions atoms, it all works. That’s eons ahead of what our science and technology can do in that realm. Hence, the answer is, of course they know exactly what they’re doing, each why and how beyond anything we can comprehend.

    As for evolution influencing body plans .. we know little about this . but seems like is due to a loss or corruption of the information which directs fetal development.

    New knowledge or innovation are always a recognition of a pattern which restricts in some way what can happen i.e. elimination of possibilities such as of all alternative configurations which don’t fit the pattern. Hence accumulation and refinement of knowledge is accumulation of ever finer constraints, like carving a fractal in a stone.

    Similarly, design and construction of higher level or larger systems always involves adding constraints on the building blocks i.e. loss of (Shannon) “information”, loss of possibilities, loss of uncertainty for those building blocks (“corruption” is value laden label for the same), harmonization and increase in mutual predictability between the building blocks (e.g. consider evolution of human society from unconstrained individuals as commandments and laws are added).

    Note that the debates of ID vs Darwinism constantly muddy the waters (from both sides) by equivocating via conflation, in various combinations, of concepts (Shannon) “information”, “code”, “knowledge”, “design”, “innovation”. Your comment and question reflect this confusion. It’s safest to avoid those terms altogether.

  29. Well ya don’t need a B.S. to B.S. but sometimes a Ph.D will cause it to be piled higher and deeper.

  30. More and more materialists are slowing coming around to realizing that NS is a fairly impotent mechanism and needs to be replaced by a better model. But to believe that life evolved artificial intelligence capable to conceive and test prototypes ???

    Even intelligent engineers with all their abilities to develop and use computer modeling to test, ultimately rely on prototype testing in its intended environment.

    …. you will still need NS to “weed out” and you still need to isolate genes to fix a trait into a population …. And as I have stated NS is rather impotent and not up to the task.

  31. Haemophilia is common within the royal lines of Europe. Does that mean it was ‘selected for’ within that population?

    Well, more correctly, Queen Victoria appears to have been a carrier for the haemophilia gene and this was a new spontaneous mutation. It was passed on through several members of her large family and many European royal families received the gene in subsequent marriages. A strong argument for not choosing a mate from close relatives.

    Haemophilia C is more common in Jews of Ashkenazi (east European) descent than in other population groups. Does that mean it is being ‘selected for’ within that Jewish population?

    I don’t know anything about haemophilia C or Ashkenazi Jews other than the same sources that are available to you via google. Do Ashkenazi Jews seek partners only within their own community? That might concentrate any mutations that might otherwise be diluted in a larger population. Speculation costs nothing.

    Is God punishing Ashkenazi Jews for following the wrong path?

  32. @ nightlight.

    Your ideas are intriguing to me and I wish to subscribe to your newsletter.

    It sounds like you might be developing an actual theory of “Intelligent Design”. I have been asking for a such a theory her for some time now but have so far been disappointed. Can you help me?

  33. Alan,

    Ashkenazi Jews went through a severe “bottleneck”, when there are relatively few ancestors descendants get whatever those ancestors had. Haemophilia C isn’t that common though – less than 10% carriers.

  34. Thanks, wd400.

    Is this paper relevant?

  35. Alan Fox:

    I have been asking for a such a theory her for some time now but have so far been disappointed.

    Alan is disappointed because the theory of ID requires that one A) be able to read, B) be able to comprehend what one has read and C) be able to thnk for himself/ herself. Alan fails at all three.

  36. @Alan Fox #32

    It sounds like you might be developing an actual theory of “Intelligent Design”. I have been asking for a such a theory her for some time now but have so far been disappointed. Can you help me?

    Thanks Alan. At present this subject is only a ‘hobby’ for me since I do have a demanding day job (research aiming at the next generation of large Data Center networks; here is my recent discovery in this field). As a theoretical physicist, my approach to ID starts with intelligent design apparent already in the laws of physics (the so called ‘fine tuning’ problem), which is perhaps even more perfect than the manifestations of the design at the higher levels, such as those in the origin and evolution of life. I think that the most promising approach is the one that address all manifestations of ID in single coherent picture rather than isolated fragments seeking to explain particular instances of design (such as that of James Shapiro focused only on biological evolution).

    The main ideas of this unified approach, which I call ‘Planckian networks’, were sketched in a series of posts in an earlier thread here on the UD. The ‘table of content’ for that informal sketch is given in the second half of this post (each bullet is a link).

  37. Bloomin’ eck, nightlight, that’s one long list of links! don’t you have an abstract or a summary? Anyway, I’ll take a look.

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