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YEC John Sanford — featured in Smithsonian National Museum of American History

John C. Sanford’s work is part of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History: Bioloistic Particle Gun

Gene guns were the brainchild of plant geneticist Dr. John C. Sanford, who spent much of the early 1980s looking for a way to insert foreign DNA into plant cells in order to create transgenic plants. At the time, the most successful process for doing this relied on a species of bacteria. The method, however, only worked for certain plant species and was not successful with important crops like wheat, rice, or corn. Sanford considered a variety of techniques, including piercing cell walls with a laser, but it was not until he teamed up with Dr. Edward Wolf of the Cornell engineering labs, that he hit on a method that worked.

When I interviewed Dr. Sanford about the early days of the gene gun project, I said, “wasn’t the risk of failure high?”

He agreed, “it was high risk research.” The willingness to undertake research into risky frontiers seems to be a defining quality of his pioneering mindset. His work literally put intelligent design into biological organisms.

Even Dawkins had to implicitly concede the impact of Sanford’s work on the re-engineering of genomes:

I think it well may be that we’re living in a time when evolution is suddenly starting to become intelligently designed.

Richard Dawkins
The Atheist

young john c sanford

Before listing John’s accomplishments, here is John reflecting on his own life:

In retrospect, I realize that I have wasted so much of my life arguing about things that don’t really matter. It is my sincere hope that this book can actually address something that really does matter. The issue of who we are, where we came from, and where we are going seem to me to be of enormous importance. This is the real subject of this book.

Modern Darwinism is built on what I will be calling “The Primary Axiom”. The Primary Axiom is that man is merely the product of random mutations plus natural selection. Within our society’s academia, the Primary Axiom is universally taught, and almost universally accepted. It is the constantly mouthed mantra, repeated endlessly on every college campus. It is very difficult to find any professor on any college campus who would even consider (or should I say dare) to question the Primary Axiom.

Late in my career, I did something which for a Cornell professor would seem unthinkable. I began to question the Primary Axiom. I did this with great fear and trepidation. By doing this, I knew I would be at odds with the most “sacred cow” of modern academia. Among other things, it might even result in my expulsion from the academic world.

Although I had achieved considerable success and notoriety within my own particular specialty (applied genetics), it would mean I would have to be stepping out of the safety of my own little niche. I would have to begin to explore some very big things, including aspects of theoretical genetics which I had always accepted by faith alone. I felt compelled to do all this, but I must confess I fully expected to simply hit a brick wall. To my own amazement, I gradually realized that the seemingly “great and unassailable fortress” which has been built up around the primary axiom is really a house of cards. The Primary Axiom is actually an extremely vulnerable theory, in fact it is essentially indefensible. Its apparent invincibility derives mostly from bluster, smoke, and mirrors. A large part of what keeps the Axiom standing is an almost mystical faith, which the true-believers have in the omnipotence of natural selection. Furthermore, I began to see that this deep-seated faith in natural selection was typically coupled with a degree of ideological commitment which can only be described as religious. I started to realize (again with trepidation) that I might be offending a lot of people’s religion!

To question the Primary Axiom required me to re-examine virtually everything I thought I knew about genetics. This was probably the most difficult intellectual endeavor of my life. Deeply entrenched thought pattern only change very slowly (and I must add — painfully). What I eventually experienced was a complete overthrow of my previous understandings. Several years of personal struggle resulted in a new understanding, and a very strong conviction that the Primary Axiom was most definitely wrong. More importantly, I became convinced that the Axiom could be shown to be wrong to any reasonable and open-minded individual. This realization was exhilarating, but again frightening. I realized that I had a moral obligation to openly challenge this most sacred of cows. In doing this, I realized I would earn for myself the most intense disdain of most of my colleagues in academia not to mention very intense opposition and anger from other high places.

What should I do? It has become my conviction that the Primary Axiom is insidious on the highest level, having catastrophic impact on countless human lives. Furthermore, every form of objective analysis I have performed has convinced me that the Axiom is clearly false. So now, regardless of the consequences, I have to say it out loud: the Emperor has no clothes!

To the extent that the Primary Axiom can be shown to be false, it should have a major impact on your own life and on the world at large. For this reason, I have dared to write this humble little book which some will receive as blasphemous treason, and others revelation.

If the Primary Axiom is wrong, then there is a surprising and very practical consequence. When subjected only to natural forces, the human genome must irrevocably degenerate over time. Such a sober realization should have more than just intellectual or historical significance. It should rightfully cause us to personally reconsider where we should rationally be placing our hope for the future.

John Sanford

Here is Sanford’s bio at Cornell:

:
University of Minnesota-St. Paul BS 1976 Horticulture
University of Wisconsin-Madison MS 1978 Plant Breeding/Plant Genetics
University of Wisconsin-Madison Ph.D. 1980 Plant Breeding/Plant Genetics

Research Program Overview

My central research objectives have involved:
Genomic Research – development of data visualization programs
Study of the theoretical limits of the mutation/selection process – numerical simulation programs
Development of new approaches to genetically engineer disease and pathogen resistance
Development of genetic transformation technologies
Conventional breeding of strawberries and raspberries

My most significant accomplishments are:
Co-developer of “Skittle” – a state-of-the-art bioinformatics program for visualizing genomic data
Co-developer of “Mendel’s Accountant” – today’s most advanced forward-time population genetics simulation program
Co-inventor of the Genetic Vaccination process
Co-inventor of the Pathogen-derived Resistance (PDR) process
Primary inventor of the biolistic (gene gun) process
Primary inventor of numerous conventionally-bred fruit varieties
Most of the world’s transgenic crop acreages were transformed via my biolistic process

I am presently looking at genome-wide patterns in higher genomes.

Links to Recent and Current Projects

Mendel’s Accountant (http://mendelsaccountant.info)
Skittle Genome Visualizer (http://sourceforge.net/projects/skittle)/
Skittle: A 2-Dimensional Genome Visualization Tool (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/10/452)

Academic Positions Held
2010-present Courtesy Associate Professor, Dept. of Horticulture
1998-2010 Courtesy Associate Professor, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences
1994-1998 Associate Professor, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University. Part-time appointment.
1986-1994 Associate Professor, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University. Responsibilities – 100% research.
1980-1986 Assistant Professor (as above).

Academic Honors
Adjunct Assoc. Prof. of Botany – Duke University, Durham, NC.
Distinguished Inventor Award: (W. Greatbatch, J. Sanford) 1995, Gene therapy for retroviruses. Central NY Patent Law Assoc.
Distinguished Inventor Award: (J. Sanford, E. Wolf, N. Allen) 1990, The biolistic process. Central NY Patent Law Assoc.

Publications

Approaching 100 publications (including pending papers). Papers in Science, Nature, Cell, and PNAS.

Roughly 30 patents.

1. Most recent publications:

J.C. Sanford & C.W. Nelson (2012). The Next Step in Understanding Population Dynamics: Comprehensive Numerical Simulation. In: Studies in Population Genetics, M.C. Fusté (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0588-6, InTech.

R.W. Carter & J.C. Sanford (2012). A new look at an old virus: patterns of mutation accumulation in the human H1N1 influenza virus since 1918. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modeling 9:42 doi:10.1186/1742-4682-9-42.

Nelson, C.W. & Sanford, J.C. (2011). The Effects of Low-Impact Mutations in Digital Organisms. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modeling, Vol. 8, (April 2011), p. 9.

Seaman, J. and J.C. Sanford. 2009. Skittle: a two dimensional genome visualization tool. BMC Bioinformatics 10:452.(http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/10/452).

Sanford, J.C., Baumgardner, J., Gibson, P., Brewer, W., ReMine, W. (2007). Mendel‚s Accountant: a biologically realistic forward-time population genetics program. SCPE 8(2): 147-165. http://www.scpe.org.

Sanford, J.C., Baumgardner, J., Gibson, P., Brewer, W., ReMine, W. (2007). Using computer simulation to understand mutation accumulation dynamics and genetic load. In Shi et al. (Eds.), ICCS 2007, Part II, LNCS 4488 (pp.386-392), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Sanford,J.C. 2006. Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome. Elim Publications. Elim, NY. 208 pages.

DeGray, G., Rajasekarana, K., Smith F. Sanford, J. Daniel H., 2001. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide via the chloroplast genome to control phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Plant Physiology 127 (3): 852-862.

Production of transgenic poinsettia (2006). US Pat. 7119262 – Filed Jul 31, 1997 – Sanford Scientific, Inc. … Geneva, NY (US); Tau-San Chou, Batavia, IL (US); Robert Eisenreich, North Aurora, IL (US); John Sanford, Geneva, NY (US); Alan Blowers, St. Charles, …

Expression of magainin and PGL classes of antimicrobial peptide genes in plants, and their use. (2001). US Pat. 6235973 – Filed Jul 31, 1998 – Sanford Scientific, Inc…. Geneva, NY (US); Alan D. Blowers, St. Charles, IL (US); Joyce Van Eck, Ithaca; John Sanford, Geneva, both of NY (US) (73) Assignee: Sanford Scientific, …

2. Publications relating to genetics and biotechnology:

Sanford, J.C. 1982. Pollen studies using a laser microbeam. In D.L. Mulcahy and E. Ottaviano (eds.) Pollen: Biology and Implications for Breeding, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Pollen Biology. Springer-Verlag, NY. p. 107-115.

Sanford, J.C.,Y.S. Chyi, and B.I. Reisch. 1984. An attempt to induce “egg transformation” in Lycopersicon esculentum using irradiated pollen. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 67:553-558.

Sanford, J.C., Chyi, Y.S., and B.I,. Reisch. 1984. Attempted “egg transformation” in Zea mays L., using irradiated pollen. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 68:269-275.

Chyi, Y.S., J.C. Sanford, and B.I. Reisch. 1984. Further attempts to induce “egg transformation” using irradiated pollen. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 68:277-283.

Sanford, J.C., N.F. Weeden, and Y.S. Chyi. 1984. Regarding the novelty and breeding value of protoplast-derived variants of Russet Burbank (Solanum tuberosum L.) Euphytica 33:709-715.

Sanford, J.C., K. Skubik, and B.I. Reisch. 1984. Attempted transformation in tomato and corn, using incubation of pollen with genomic DNA. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 69:571-574.

Sanford, J.C., and S.A. Johnston. 1985. The concept of parasite derived resistance. Journal of Theoretical Biology 113: 395-405.

Chyi, Y.S. and J.C. Sanford. 1985. “Egg transformation” induced by irradiated pollen in Nicotiana -a re-examination. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 70:433-439.

Sanford, J.C. and K.A. Skubik. 1985. Attempted pollen mediated transformation with Ti-plasmids. In: D.L. Mulcahy (ed.) Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen. Proceedings of International Symposium. Springer-Verlag, NY. p. 71-76.

Simon, C.J., and J.C. Sanford. 1985. Prospects for pollen cell selection for resistance to various chemical agents. In: D.L. Mulcahy (ed.). Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen. Proceedings of International Symposium. Springer-Verlag, NY. p. 107-112.

Grummet, R., J. C. Sanford, and S. A. Johnston. 1986. A demonstration of pathogen-derived resistance using E. coli and the bacteriophage, QB. C. Arntzen and C. Ryan (eds.). Molecular Strategies for Crop Protection. UCLA Symposium on Cellular and Molecular Biology, V. 48. A. R. Liss. NY . pp 3-12.

Sanford, J. C., T. M. Klein, E. D. Wolf, and N. Allen. 1987. Delivery of substances into cells and tissues using a particle bombardment process. Journal of Particulate Science and Technology 5:27-37.

Klein, T. M., E. D. Wolf, R. Wu, and J. C. Sanford. 1987. High-velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cells. Nature 327:70-73.

Grummet, R., J. C. Sanford, and S. A. Johnston. 1987. Pathogen-derived resistance to viral infection using a negative regulatory molecule. Virology 161:561-569.

Sanford, J. C. 1988. Applying the PDR principle to AIDS. Journal of Theoretical Biology 130:469-480.

Sanford J. C. 1988. Regarding early claims of pollen-mediated transformation. in Ed. F.A. Valentine. Forest and Crop Biotechnology -Progress and Prospects. Spinger-Verlag, NY. pp163=
173.

Pang, S. Z., and J. C. Sanford. 1988. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer in papaya. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113:287-291.

Klein, T. M., M. E. Fromm, A. Weissinger, D. Tomes, S. Schaaf, M. Sleeten, and J. C. Sanford. 1988. Transfer of foreign genes into intact maize cells with high velocity microprojectiles. PNAS 85:4305-4309.

Klein, T. M., M. E. Fromm, T. Gradziel, and J. C. Sanford. 1988. Factors influencing gene delivery into Zea mays cells by high-velocity microprojectiles. Bio/Technology 6:559-563.

Johnston, S. A., P.Q. Anziano, K. Shark, J. C. Sanford, and R.A. Butow. 1988. Mitochondrial transformation in yeast by bombardment with microprojectiles. Science 240:1538-1541.

Boynton, J. E., N. W. Gillham, E. H. Harris, J. P. Hosler, A. M. Johnson, A. R. Jones, B. L. Randolph-Anderson, D. Robertson, T. M. Klein, K. Shark, J. C. Sanford. 1988. Chloroplast transformation of Chlamydomonas with high velocity microprojectiles. Science 240:1534-1538.

Fox, T. D., J. C. Sanford, and T. W. McMullin. 1988. Plasmids can stably transform yeast mitochondria totally lacking endogenous mtDNA. PNAS 85:7288-7292.

Klein, T.M., E.C. Harper, Z. Svab, J.C. Sanford, M.E. Fromm, P. Maliga. 1988. Stable genetic transformation of intact Nicotiana cells by the particle bombardment process. PNAS 85:85028505.

Wang, Y. C., T. M. Klein, M. Fromm, J. Cao, J. C. Sanford, and R. Wu. 1988. Transient expression of foreign genes in rice, wheat, and soybean cells following particle bombardment. Plant Molecular Biology 11: 433-439 .

Sanford, J. 1988. The biolistic process. Trends in Biotechnology 6:229-302.

Liu, Z. R., and J. C. Sanford. 1988. Plant regeneration by organogenesis from strawberry leaf and runner tissue. HortScience 23:1057-1059.

Blowers, A.D., L. Bogorad, K.B. Shark, G.N. Ye, and J.C. Sanford. 1989. Studies on Chlamydomonas chloroplast transformation: foreign DNA can be stably maintained in the chromosome. The Plant Cell 1:123-132.

Klein, T.M., L. Kornstein, J.C. Sanford, and M.E. Fromm. 1989. Genetic transformation of maize cells by particle bombardment. Plant Physiology 91: 440-444.

Daniell, H., J. Vivekananda, B.L. Nielsen, G.N. Ye, K.K. Tewari, and J.C. Sanford, 1990. Transient foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells after biolistic delivery of chloroplast vectors. PNAS 87: 88-92.

Cummings, D.J., J.M. Dominico, and J.C. Sanford. 1990. Mitochondrial DNA from Podospora anserina: transformation to senescence via projectile injection of plasmids. In: Molecular Biology of Aging. ©Alan R. Liss, NY pp91-101.

Armeleo, D., G.N. Ye, S.A. Johnston, T.M. Klein, K.B. Shark, and J.C. Sanford. 1990. Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Current Genetics 17:97-103.

Cao, J., Y-C. Wang, T.M. Klein, J. C. Sanford, and R. Wu. 1990. Transformation of rice and maize using the biolistic process. In: Plant Gene Transfer-1989 UCLA Symposium. ©Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp21-33.

Sanford, J. 1990. Biolistic plant transformation. Physiologia Plantarum 79:206-209.

Fitch, M.M., R. M. Manshardt, D. Gonsalves, J. L. Slightom, H. Quemada, and J. C. Sanford. 1990. Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment. Plant Cell Reports 9:189-194.

Ye, G.N., H. Daniell, and J.C. Sanford. 1990. Optimization of delivery of foreign DNA into higher-plant chloroplasts. Plant Molecular Biology 15: 809-819.

Sanford, J.C., 1990. The biolistic process -an emerging tool for research and clinical applications. Proceedings of the Biomedical Society. Virginia Polytech. Inst. Blacksburg, VA. D.C. Milulecky and A.M. Clarke (eds). New York University Press, NY. pp 89-98.

Russell, J.A., M.K. Roy, and J.C. Sanford. 1990. Cell injury as a limiting factor in stable biolistic plant transformation. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 26:43A.

Shark, K.B., F.D. Smith, P.R. Harpending, J.L. Rasmussen, and J.C. Sanford. 1991. Biolistic transformation of a procaryote: Bacillus megaterium. Applied Environmental Microbiology 57:480-485.

Williams, R.S., S.A. Johnston, M. Reidy, M.J. DeVit, S.G. McElligott, and J.C. Sanford. 1991. Introduction of foreign genes into tissues of living mice by DNA-coated microprojectiles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Vol. 88:2726-2730.

Sanford, J.C., M.J. DeVit, J.A. Russell, F.D. Smith, P.R. Harpending, M.K. Roy, and S.A. Johnston. 1991. An improved, helium driven biolistic device. Technique 3:3-16.

Johnston, S.A., M. Riedy, M.J. DeVit, J.C. Sanford, S. McElligott, and R. S. Williams. 1991. Biolistic transformation of animal tissue. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 27P:11-14.

Russell, J.A., M.K. Roy, and J.C. Sanford. 1992. Physical trauma and tungsten toxicity reduce the efficiency of biolistic transformation. Plant Physiology 98:1050-1056.

Smith, F.D., P.R. Harpending, and J.C. Sanford. 1992. Biolistic transformation of prokaryotes factors that effect transformation of very small cells. Journal of General Microbiology 138:239-248.

Pang, Sheng-Zhi, S. Oberhaus, J. Rasmussen, D. Knipple, J. Bloomquist, D. Dean, and J. Sanford. 1992. Expression of a scorpion insectotoxin peptide in yeast, bacteria and plants. Gene 116: 165-172.

Pang, Sheng-Zhi, J. Rasmussen, G.N. Ye, and J.C. Sanford. 1992. Use of the signal peptide of Pisum vicilin to translocate b-glucuronidase in Nicotiana tabacum. Gene 112(2):229-234.

Russell, J.A., M.K. Roy, and J.C. Sanford. 1992. Physical trauma and tungsten toxicity reduce the efficiency of biolistic transformation. Plant Physiology 98:1050-1056.

Russell, J.A., M.K. Roy, and J.C. Sanford. 1992. Major improvements in biolistic transformation of suspension cultured tobacco cells. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 28P:97-1105.

Hamilton, D.A., M. Roy, J. Rueda, R.K. Sindhu, J. Sanford, and J.P. Mascarenhas. 1992. Dissection of a pollen-specific promoter from maize by transient transformation assays. Plant Molecular Biology 18:211-218.

Fitch, M.M., R.M. Manshardt, D. Gonsalves, J.L. Slightom, and J.C. Sanford. 1992. Virus resistant papaya plants derived from tissues bombarded with the coat protein gene of papaya ringspot virus. Bio/Technology 10:1466-1472.

Sanford, J.C., F.D. Smith, and J.A. Russell. 1993. Optimizing the biolistic process for different biological applications. Methods in Enzymology 217:483-509.

Liu Z.R., Sanford J.C., 1993. Investigation of the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of heterologous ras genes in plant cells. Plant Mol Biol. 22(5):751-65.

Rasmussen J.L., J.R. Kikkert, M.K. Roy, and J.C. Sanford, 1994. Biolistic transformation of tobacco and maize suspension cells using bacterial cells as microprojectiles. Plant Cell Reports 13:212-217.

Ye, Xiaojian, S.K. Brown, R. Scorza, J. Cordts, J. Sanford. 1994. Genetic transformation of peach tissues by particle bombardment. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Science 119(2): 367-373.

Liu, Z.R., J. Ma and J.C. Sanford. 1995. The location of untranscribed DNA sequences within ras genes essential for eliciting plant growth suppression. Plant Mol. Biol. (28 (1): 195-201).

Kamo, K.; Blowers, A.; Smith, F.; Van Eck, J.; Lawson, R. and Sanford, J. 1995. Stable transformation of Gladiolus using cormels. Plant Science 110:105-111.

Kamo, K.; Blowers, A.; Smith, F.; Van Eck, J.; Lawson, R. and Sanford, J. 1995. Stable transformation of Gladiolus using suspension cells and callus. J. Am., Soc., Hort. Sci. 120:347-352.

Smith, F.D., D.M. Gadoury, P.R. Harpending, and J.C. Sanford. 1995. Biolistic transformation of the obligate parasite Uncinula necator. Phytopathology (-).

Ye, G.N., S.Z. Pang, and J.C. Sanford. 1995. Biolistic delivery of a psbA promoter driven NPTII construct into tobacco. Plant Cell Reporter (-).

Aragao, F.J.L., Barros, L.M.G., Brasileiro, A.C.M. Ribeiro, S.G., Smith F.D. Sanford, J.C., Faria, J.C., Rech, E.L., 1996. Inheritance of foreign genes in transgenic bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) co-transformed via particle bombardment. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 93(1-2): 142-150.

Kikkert, J.R., G.A. Humiston, M.K. Roy, and J.C. Sanford. 1999. Biological projectiles (phage, yeast, bacteria) for genetic transformation of plants. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant 35:43-50.

DeGray, G., Rajasekarana, K., Smith F. Sanford, J. Daniel H., 2001. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide via the chloroplast genome to control phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Plant Physiology 127 (3): 852-862.

Sanford,J.C. 2006. Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome. Elim Publications. Elim, NY. 208 pages.

Sanford, J.C., Baumgardner, J., Gibson, P., Brewer, W., ReMine, W. (2007). Mendel‚s Accountant:a biologically realistic forward-time population genetics program. SCPE 8(2): 147-165. http://www.scpe.org.

Sanford, J.C., Baumgardner, J., Gibson, P., Brewer, W., ReMine, W. (2007). Using computer simulation to understand mutation accumulation dynamics and genetic load. In Shi et al. (Eds.), ICCS 2007, Part II, LNCS 4488 (pp.386-392), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

3. Publications Relating to Plant Breeding and Horticulture:

Sanford, J.C. and R.E. Hanneman, Jr. 1979. Reciprocal Differences in the photoperiod reaction of hybrid populations in Solanum tuberosum. Am. Potato J. 56:531-540.

Sanford, J. C. and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1981. The use of bees for the purpose of inter-mating in potato. Am.Potato J. 58:481-485.

Sanford, J.C. and R.E. Hanneman. 1982. A possible heterotic threshold in potato and its implications for breeding. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 61: 151-159.

Sanford, J.C. and R.E. Hanneman. 1982. Large yield differences between reciprocal families of Solanum tuberosum. Euphytica 31:1-12.

Sanford,J.C. and R.E. Hanneman. 1982. Intermating of potato and spontaneouus sexual polyploidization -effects on heterozygosity. Am. Potato J. 59:407-414.

Sanford, J.C. 1983. Ploidy manipulations in fruit breeding. In: J. Janick and J. N. Moore (eds.) Methods in Fruit Breeding. Purdue Univ. Press, West Lafayette, IN pp. 100-123.

Way, R.D., J.C. Sanford, and A.N. Lakso. 1983. Breeding for higher fruit yields. IN: J. Janick and J.N. Moore (eds) Methods in Fruit Breeding. Purdue Univ. Press, West Lafayette, IN pp. 353-368.

Sanford, J.C. 1984. Strawberry cultivars for New York. New York Food and Life Science Bulletin No. 107.

J. P. Tompkins, D.K. Ourecky, J.C. Sanford. 1984. Growing strawberries in New York State. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Information Bulletin No. 15.

Sanford, J.C. and J.E.Reich, 1985. Breeding progress in strawberry cultivars adapted to Northeastern United States. Advances in Strawberry Production,4:39-44.

Sanford, J.C. and D.K. Ourecky. 1982. ‘Royalty’ -a purple-red raspberry. New York Food and Life Science Bulletin. No. 97.

Sanford, J.C., D.K. Ourecky, J.E. Reich, H.S. Aldwinckle. 1982. ‘Honeoye’ and’ Canoga’ strawberries. HortScience 17:982-984.

Sanford, J.C. and D.K. Ourecky. 1983. ‘Royalty’ purple raspberry. HortScience 18:109-110.

Sanford, J.C., D.K. Ourecky, and J.E. Reich, 1985. ‘Titan’ red raspberry. HortScience 20:1133-1134.

Sanford,J.C. and J.E. Reich. 1985. ‘Jewel’ strawberry. HortSciences 20:1136-1137.

Sanford, J.C., D.K. Ourecky, and J.E. Reich. 1985. ‘Titan’ red raspberry. New York Food and Life Science Bulletin No. 111.

Sanford, J.C., D.K. Ourecky, and J.E. Reich. 1985. ‘Jewel’ strawberry. New York Food and Life Science Bulletin No.114.

Sanford, J.C. and J.E. Reich. 1985. Strawberry cultivars adapted to the Northeastern States. Proceedings of the Western New York State Horticulture Show 130:140-156.

Sanford, J.C., K.Maloney, and J.E. Reich. 1988. ‘Watson’ red raspberry. New York Food and Life Science Bulletin.

Simon, C.J. and J. C. Sanford. 1990. Separation of 2n potato pollen from a heterogenous pollen mixture by velocity sedimentation. HortScience 25:342-344.

Maloney, K., Ourecky, D., Reich, J., J. Sanford. 1991. ‘Seneca ‘ Strawberry. New York Food and Life Science Bulletin No. 136.

Maloney, K., W.F. Wilcox, J.C. Sanford. 1993. Effects of raised beds and Metalaxyl for control of Phytophthora root rot of raspberry. HortScience 28:1106-1108.

Weber, C.A., K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford. 2005. Performance of eleven floricane fruiting red raspberry cultivars in New York. Small Fruits Rev. 4(2):49-56.

Weber, C.A., K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford. 2005. Performance of eight primocane fruiting red raspberry cultivars in New York. Small Fruits Rev. 4(2):41-47.

Weber, C.A., K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford. 2004. ‘Encore’ floricane raspberry. HortScience 39(3):635-636.

Weber, C.A., K.E. Maloney and J.C. Sanford. 2004. ‘Prelude’ everbearing raspberry. HortScience 39(3):633-634.

4. Invited Papers:

Sanford, J.C., Y.S. Chyi, and B.I,. Reisch. 1984. Attempts to elucidate the phenomenon of “egg transformation” as mediated by irradiated pollen. Symposium on Plant Biotechnology -Gene transfer through non-traditional means. ASA national meetings. Nov. 25-30, Las Vegas. 1984. Agronomy Abstracts published by ASA, p. 87.

Sanford,J.C. 1985. Regarding early claims of pollen-mediated transformation. Forest and Crop Biotechnology -Progress and Prospects. April 18-20, 1985. Syracuse, NY.

Sanford, J.C., T.Klein, and E.D. Wolf. 1986. Altering living cells with particles. Symposium on the manufacture and use of particles. 17th Annual Meeting of The Fine Particles Society -July 31, l986. San Francisco.

Sanford, J. C. 1988. Biolistic Plant Transformation. First EMBO workshop: Gene Transfer to Plants. September 7-10. Switzerland.

Sanford J.C. 1989. The biolistic process: shooting DNA into cells and tissues. Joint meetings of the Canadian Society of Plant Molecular Biologists and the Genetics Society of Canada, June. Saskatoon, SK.

Sanford J.C. 1989. The biolistic process. Meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiologists. July, Toronto, Ont.

Sanford J.C. 1989. Biolistic transformation of plants. Advanced course in plant tissue culture and plant transformation. University of Guelph, August, Guelph, Ont.

Sanford J.C. 1990. Utility of the biolistic process. Biomedical Engineering Society Meetings, Virginia Polytech Inst. Blacksburg, VA.

Sanford J.C. 1991. Optimization of the Biolistic Process. International Workshop on the Biolistic Process, sponsored by Agracetus. U of W, Madison, WI.

Sanford J.C. 1992. The Biolistic Process -A simple tool for transforming diverse crop species. Miami Bio/Technology Winter Symposium -Feeding the World in the 21st Century, Jan. 1992.

Sanford J.C. 1993. International Training Course -analysis and manipulation of the plant genome. Irapuato, Mexico. The biolistic Process, where it came from and where its going: and, New directions in biolistic technology, use of biological projectiles for delivery of very HMW DNA.

Sanford J.C. 1993. Governor’s Conference on Agricultural Science and Technology. Albany, NY. Genetic Engineering of Plants used in Environmental Horticulture. Nov. 9-10.

Sanford J.C. 1994. Seeley Conference. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Gene guns and other weapons in tomorrow’s arsenal. June 28-28.

5. Allowed Patents (based on Google Patent Search):

Method for transporting substances into living cells and tissues and apparatus therefor US Pat. 4945050 – Filed Nov 13, 1984 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. John C. Sanford …

Method for transporting substances into living cells and tissues and apparatus therefor US Pat. 5036006 – Filed Aug 17, 1989 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.

METHOD FOR TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES INTO LIVING CELLS AND TISSUES AND APPARATUS THEREFOR [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; Edward D. Wolf, …

Parasite-derived resistance US Pat. 5580716 – Filed Nov 17, 1994 – Stephen A. Johnston… N. Gregson, Durham, NC 27701; John C. Sanford, Geneva, NY [73] Assignees: Stephen A. Johnston, Dallas, Tex.; Cornell Research Foundation, Inc., Ithaca, …

E. coli resistance to Q.beta. virus infection US Pat. 5240841 – Filed Mar 25, 1992 – Duke University [54] E. COLI RESISTANCE TO Q/3 VIRUS INFECTION [75] Inventors: Stephen A. Johnston, Durham, NC; John C. Sanford, Geneva, NY [73] Assignees: Duke University, …

Method and apparatus for introducing biological substances into living cells US Pat. 5204253 – Filed May 29, 1990 – E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
[54] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING BIOLOGICAL SUBSTANCES INTO LIVING CELLS [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford; Michael J. devit, both of Geneva, NY; …

Stable transformation of plant cells US Pat. 5990387 – Filed Oct 6, 1994 – Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. … [75] Inventors: Dwight T. Tomes, Gumming; Arthur Weissinger, Des Moines, both of Iowa; John C. Sanford, Geneva, NY; Theodore M. Klein, Wilmington, Del. …

Method for transporting substances into living cells and tissues US Pat. 5100792 – Filed Jan 24, 1989 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.

[54] METHOD FOR TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES INTO LIVING CELLS AND TISSUES [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; Edward D. Wolf, Ithaca; Nelson K. Allen, …

Apparatus for transporting substances into living cells and tissues US Pat. 5371015 – Filed Jan 9, 1991 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. [54] APPARATUS FOR TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES INTO LIVING CELLS AND TISSUES [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; Edward D. Wolf, Ithaca; Nelson K. Allen, …

Biolistic apparatus for delivering substances into cells and tissues in a non-lethal manner
US Pat. 5179022 – Filed Feb 11, 1992 – E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co. [54] BIOLISTIC APPARATUS FOR DELIVERING SUBSTANCES INTO CELLS AND TISSUES IN A NON-LETHAL MANNER [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; Edward D. Wolf, …

Method for transporting substances into living cells and tissues and apparatus therefor
US Pat. 5478744 – Filed Aug 12, 1994 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. … METHOD FOR TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES INTO LIVING CELLS AND TISSUES AND APPARATUS THEREFOR [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; Edward D. Wolf, Ithaca; …

Stable transformation of plant cells US Pat. 5886244 – Filed May 15, 1998 – Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. John C. Sanford …

Stable transformation of plant cells US Pat. 6258999 – Filed May 16, 1995 – Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (54) STABLE TRANSFORMATION OF PLANT CELLS (75) Inventors: Dwight T. Tomes, Gumming, IA (US); Arthur Weissinger, Raleigh, NC (US); John C. Sanford, Geneva, …

Method of conferring resistance to retroviral infection
US Pat. 5324643 – Filed Jul 29, 1991 – Greatbatch Gen-Aid, Ltd. John C. Sanford …

Particle-mediated bombardment of DNA sequences into tissue to induce an immune response
US Pat. 6194389 – Filed Apr 11, 1997 – Duke University John C. Sanford …

Parasite-derived resistance US Pat. 5840481 – Filed Nov 29, 1996 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. [54] PARASITE-DERIVED RESISTANCE [75] Inventors: Stephen A. Johnston, N. Gregson,
Durham, NC 27701; John C. Sanford, Geneva, NY [73] Assignees: Cornell …

Parasite-derived resistance US Pat. 6365396 – Filed May 20, 1999 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. () PARASITE-DERIVED RESISTANCE (75) Inventors: Stephen A. Johnston, Durham,
NC (US); John C. Sanford, Geneva, NY (US) (73) Assignee: Cornell Research …

Stable transformation of plant cells US Pat. 6570067 – Filed Jul 30, 1999 – Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. STABLE TRANSFORMATION OF PLANT CELLS (75) Inventors: Dwight T. Tomes, Gumming, IA (US); Arthur Weissinger, Raleigh, NC (US); John C. Sanford, …

Method of conferring resistance to immunodeficiency viral infection
US Pat. 5580761 – Filed Mar 23, 1994 – Greatbatch Gen-Aid Ltd. John C. Sanford …

Biolistic apparatus for delivering substances into cells and tissues
US Pat. 6004287 – Filed Sep 23, 1998 6004287 BIOLISTIC APPARATUS FOR DELIVERING SUBSTANCES INTO CELLS AND TISSUES RELATED APPLICATION Applicants claim priority benefits of provisional …

Expression of magainin and PGL classes of antimicrobial peptide genes in plants, and their use.
US Pat. 6235973 – Filed Jul 31, 1998 – Sanford Scientific, Inc. … Geneva, NY (US); Alan D. Blowers, St. Charles, IL (US); Joyce Van Eck, Ithaca; John Sanford, Geneva, both of NY (US) (73) Assignee: Sanford Scientific, …

Production of transgenic poinsettia US Pat. 7119262 – Filed Jul 31, 1997 – Sanford Scientific, Inc.
… Geneva, NY (US); Tau-San Chou, Batavia, IL (US); Robert Eisenreich, North Aurora, IL (US); John Sanford, Geneva, NY (US); Alan Blowers, St. Charles, …

6. Plant Patents:

Strawberry Jewel
US Pat. PP5897 – Filed Jul 2, 1985 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
3 John C. Sanford … [ii] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: [54] STRAWBERRY
JEWEL [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, …

Strawberry Seneca
US Pat. PP8991 – Filed Feb 26, 1993 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
United States Patent [19] Sanford et al. [54] STRAWBERRY SENECA [15] Inventors:
John Sanford, Geneva, NY; …

Strawberry plant named ŒL’Amour‚
US Pat. PP16480 – Filed Jun 21, 2004 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
… Varietal Denomination: L’Amour (75) Inventors: Courtney A. Weber, Geneva,
NY (US); John C. Sanford, Livonia, …

Strawberry plant named ŒClancy‚
US Pat. PP16571 – Filed Jun 21, 2004 – Cornell Research Foundation Inc.
… Geneva, NY (US); John C. Sanford, Livonia, NY (US); Kevin E. Maloney, Phelps,
NY (US) (73) Assignee: Cornell Research Foundation Inc., Ithaca, …

Purple raspberry, N.Y. 632
US Pat. PP5405 – Filed Sep 16, 1982 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
United States Patent [19] Sanford et al. [ii] Patent Number: [45] Date of
Patent: [54] PURPLE RASPBERRY, NY 632 [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; …

Red raspberry, N.Y. 883
US Pat. PP5404 – Filed Sep 16, 1982 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
United States Patent [] Sanford et al. [ii] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: [54]
RED RASPBERRY, NY 883 [75] Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; …

Red raspberry `Watson`
US Pat. PP7067 – Filed Oct 28, 1988 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
[ii] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: [54] RED RASPBERRY ‘WATSON’ [75] Inventors:
John C. Sanford; Jack E. Reich, both of Geneva, NY [73] Assignee: …

Red raspberry plant named `Encore`
US Pat. PP11746 – Filed Oct 6, 1998 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
23, 2001 (54) RED RASPBERRY PLANT NAMED ‘ENCORE’ (75) Inventors: John C. Sanford,
Geneva; Kevin E. Maloney, Phelps; Jack E. Reich, Geneva, all of NY (US); …

Red raspberry plant named `Prelude`
US Pat. PP11747 – Filed Oct 6, 1998 – Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
(12) United States Plant Patent Sanford et al. () RED RASPBERRY PLANT
NAMED ‘PRELUDE’ (75) Inventors: John C. Sanford, Geneva; Kevin E. Maloney, …

NOTES:
1. Compare John C. Sanford’s impact on the world of science to the GNUs (Sam Harris, PZ Myers) listed in YEC John Hartnett accumulates 5.7 million in science grants

2. Those creeps at Wikipedia for the longest time made sure Sanford’s name wasn’t associated with the Gene Gun (any guesses as to why?). That’s fixed now, thankfully.

3. Is Jerry Coyne going throw a hissy fit over this like he did over Ben Carson?

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4 Responses to YEC John Sanford — featured in Smithsonian National Museum of American History

  1. I love this:

    Following discussions with Wolf, Sanford mentioned a new idea–partially inspired by his ongoing fight against squirrels in his yard–a biolistic gene gun.

  2. I fixed the URL to the American History Museum

  3. Found a mention of this “gene gun” in another scientific paper from Wolfe-Eckard Lonnig:
    http://www.globalsciencebooks......)1-21o.pdf (check pages 16,17)

  4. Has anyone at uncommondescent done a comprehensive article on Mendel’s Accountant and related this to the unrealistic aspects of macro evolution?

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